Zajonc also discussed two lines of research initiated prior to his work via the simple exposure hypothesis, which suggested a link between exposure and interpersonal attraction. The most obvious application of the simple exposure effect is in advertising, but research on its effectiveness in improving consumer attitudes towards certain companies and products has been mixed. One study tested the simple exposure effect with banner ads on a computer screen. College-aged students were asked to read an article on the computer while banner ads flashed at the top of the screen. The results showed that each group exposed to the “test” banner rated the ad more favorably than other ads that were shown less frequently or not at all. This research supports the simple exposure effect. [16] However, they also noted that ratings decreased with increasing exposure. Since the simple exposure effect means we like what we see more often, it means we`re more likely to get along with the people we see more regularly. This could help explain why we are more likely to get along with people we meet at work or school than with people we meet in other circumstances.

In 1980, Zajonc proposed the affective primacy hypothesis: that affective responses (such as sympathy) “can be triggered with minimal stimulus input.” Through simple exposure experiments, Zajonc attempted to provide evidence for the affective primacy hypothesis, namely that affective judgments are made without prior cognitive processes. He tested this hypothesis by presenting participants with repeated stimuli at suboptimal thresholds so that they did not show conscious awareness or recognition of repeated stimuli (when asked if they had seen the image, the responses were at a random level), but continued to show affective bias against the stimuli repeatedly exposed. Zajonc compared the results of prime numbers that were exposed longer, allowing for conscious consciousness, with stimuli shown so briefly that the participants did not show conscious awareness. He found that shorter, unrecognized primes elicited faster sympathy responses than primes shown at a conscious level. [5] [6] In the world of advertising, the simple exposure effect suggests that consumers do not have to perceive advertising: a simple repetition is enough to leave a “memory trace” in the consumer`s head and unconsciously influence his consumer behavior. One scientist explains this relationship as follows: “The approximation tendencies created by mere exposure may be pre-attitudinal in that they do not require the kind of conscious processing required to form brand ownership.” [20] However, other evidence contradicted the simple exposure effect. For example, Jakobovits (1966), who used music sales as an indicator to like, found that as popular music played more and more frequently on the radio, it would increase after sales (i.e. likes) for their music declined. We should try to avoid the simple exposure effect, as it can cause us to miss out on valuable information and opportunities that we have never seen before. This effect draws us towards the familiar, and as mentioned earlier, familiarity is not a good basis for evaluating things.

Sometimes the new option is actually the best option. The prioritization of the familiar prevents us from venturing into these uncharted waters. This can lead us to make ill-informed decisions and prevent us from seizing new opportunities. Imagine citizens voting for politicians they know through election ads and media coverage, rather than candidates representing their interests. Imagine an investor who decides not to support cutting-edge technology because he is used to his predecessor. In this article, we also talked about the idea of using repeated exposure to help a patient overcome irrational anxiety. This is an example of intentional and deliberate repeated exposure. Jane`s decision to order a dish she knows well, and her growing love of pizza after eating it again, can be attributed to the simple exposure effect.

We prefer things we`ve been exposed to in the past, and our preference increases with our exposure. Do you want to use the simple exposure effect to your advantage? If you want to be a butterfly in your social circles, it`s important to float around from time to time! It`s very powerful to see how much just being “there” can do for you. Those in your presence can love you more. Overall, these contextual studies show that simple exposure and associative learning effects are independent and additive. Harrison (1977) begins his text on the simple exhibition effect with an anecdote about the Eiffel Tower, one of the most emblematic and “apparently popular” structures in the world (Coutaud and Duclair, 1956). While psychologists are still debating what causes the simple exposure effect, it seems that the fact that we`ve been exposed to something before can change our feelings about it. And that might explain why, at least sometimes, we tend to prefer things that are already familiar to us. Unlike the previously discussed studies on word frequency and interpersonal exposure, many studies examining the effects of exposure to responses to music selection have shown that low- and medium-frequency stimuli tend to be the most popular (Harrison, 1977). The simple exposure effect is important for many reasons, mainly because of the context in which it occurs. According to Zajonc, the simple exposure effect can occur without conscious perception, and “preferences do not need to be inferred.” [6] This statement has inspired much research on the relationship between cognition and affect. Zajonc explains that if preferences (or attitudes) were based solely on units of information with affect, persuasion would be quite simple. He argues that this is not the case: such simple persuasive tactics have failed miserably.

[6] Zajonc notes that affective responses to stimuli occur much faster than cognitive responses, and that these responses often occur with much more confidence. He argues that thought (cognition) and feeling (affect) are different, and that cognition is neither free of affect nor free of cognition:[6] that “the form of experience we call feeling accompanies all cognitions, that it occurs early in the process of recording and retrieval, although weak and vague, and that it arises from a parallel, separate and partially independent system in the body. [6] Based on the simple exposure effect, we are more likely to see things positively after repeated exposure. Grush, J. E. (1976). Attitude formation and simple exposure phenomena: a non-artificial explanation of empirical results. Zeitschrift für Persönlichkeits- und Sozialpsychologie, 33(3), 281. Moreland, R.

L. and Zajonc, R. B. (1977). Is the detection of stimuli a necessary prerequisite for the occurrence of exposure effects? Zeitschrift für Persönlichkeits- und Sozialpsychologie, 35(4), 191. In essence, decision-making, when influenced by the simple exposure effect, boils down to the saying: “Better the devil I know than the devil I don`t know.” However, many do not think about it or realize that they do not really “know” the so-called devil they choose so well. As a result, experts say that “the simple exposure effect provides a possible explanation for why proximity increases attractiveness.” Reducing the complexity of a stimulus can also reduce the likelihood of an exposure effect.